The Role of Phosphorybosyl Pyrophosphate in Nucleotide Biosynthesis: A Thermodynamic Perspective
Nucleotides are essential building blocks of nucleic acids and therefore are necessary for the functioning of all living organisms. Many of these nucleotides contain carbohydrates and their biosynthesis is highly regulated. One of the major sources of carbohydrates for nucleotide biosynthesis is phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PPP). PPP is a high-energy molecule that is thermodynamically favourable for the formation of sugar phosphates, which are used to construct various nucleotides. This thermodynamic stability is due to the presence of two negatively charged phosphate groups which provide greater repulsive forces than those provided by single phosphate groups (Mulrooney, 2016). Additionally, PPP has a high activation energy for the dehydration reaction that is necessary for the formation of sugar phosphates. This makes it easier for enzymes to catalyze the reaction, allowing for efficient and accurate biosynthesis of nucleotides (Funk et al., 2020). Furthermore, PPP is a relatively simple molecule with low molecular weight and minimal steric hindrance, making it an ideal substrate for the enzymatic reactions required for nucleotide biosynthesis (Takasuka et al., 2021). Cont…
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