The Propagation of an Action Potential Through a Neuron to Release a Neurotransmitter,Your brain is an amazing organ that will change throughout your lifetime. Please explain the following: As you learn, your neurons become more efficient and effective. Please explain how an action potential would be propagated through a neuron to release a neurotransmitter like dopamine at the synapse. Then give 3 ways that a neuron may change over time to become more efficient.

The Propagation of an Action Potential Through a Neuron to Release a Neurotransmitter

An action potential is an electrical signal that travels throughout a neuron. It is generated when the neuron is stimulated, either by an external stimulus or by a neurotransmitter from a neighbouring neuron. This action potential is propagated along the length of the neuron until it reaches the synaptic terminals. At the synaptic terminals, the action potential triggers the release of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, into the synaptic cleft. The neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron, resulting in a new action potential in the postsynaptic neuron (Gruber, 2020; Desai et al., 2016). Over time, neurons can become more efficient and effective by changing in three major ways. Firstly, neurons can strengthen their synapses. This is known as synaptic plasticity and occurs when neurons are repeatedly stimulated by action potentials. Secondly, neurons can increase the speed of action potential propagation. This is known as conduction velocity and is important for quickly transmitting information throughout the brain. Finally, neurons can increase the number of neurotransmitters they release at the synaptic terminals. This is known as transmitter release and is important for increasing the strength of the signal sent to the postsynaptic neuron (Bengio et al., 2021; Morgenthaler et al., 2020). Cont…

 

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