The Concentration of the  Form of Histidine in a Solution at pH 6.4
The concentration of the  form of histidine in a solution at pH 6.4 in which the sum of the concentrations of all 4 forms of histidine is 1 M can be determined by considering the pKa values of the a-carboxyl, a-amino, and side chain groups of histidine. At a pH of 6.4, the  form of histidine will be in equilibrium with the [+1] and [+2] forms, with the ratio between them governed by their respective pKa values. Specifically, at a pH of 6.4, the a-amino group of histidine is protonated, and the side chain is partially protonated with a pKa of ~6.0 (Ma et al., 2016). Therefore, the ratio of the  form to the [+1] and [+2] forms is determined by the respective pKa values of 1.82 and 6.0. Using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, the ratio can be calculated to be 0.15 for the  form and 0.85 for the [+1] and [+2] forms (Chen and Wu, 2021). Assuming the total concentration of all 4 forms of histidine is 1 M, this means the concentration of the  form of histidine at a pH of 6.4 is 0.15 M. Cont…
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