Solid-solution Strengthening: An Overview of Lattice Strain Interactions with Dislocations
Solid-solution strengthening is a phenomenon that occurs when impurity atoms are added to a crystal lattice. These impurities can be substitutional, meaning they take the place of an atom in the lattice, or interstitial, meaning they are added in between the atoms in the lattice. When impurity atoms are added to the lattice, they interact with dislocations in the material, leading to an increase in material strength. The exact manner in which this phenomenon occurs can be explained from both macroscopic and atomic perspectives. From a macroscopic perspective, when an impurity atom is added to a lattice, it causes strains in the lattice. This strain is due to the extra atoms, which are slightly larger than the atoms in the substrate material, taking up space in the lattice. These strains cause the dislocation lines in the material to be pinned, meaning that the material is harder to deform. This results in an increase in material strength (Babu et al., 2021). Cont…
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