Reflection on the Adenylyl Cyclase Signaling Cascade in Liver Hepatacytes When Glucagon is High
Adenylyl cyclase (AC) signaling cascade plays an important role in the intracellular responses of a liver hepatacyte when glucagon is high. The cascade is initiated by glucagon, which serves as a first messenger and binds to a receptor on the membrane of the hepatacyte. This binding activates a G protein signal transducer, which in turn activates the Gs alpha subunit, and then the adenylyl cyclase effector. The effector then produces cAMP, the second messenger, which then activates the protein kinase A (PKA). The PKA activation leads to the phosphorylation and activation of the enzymes fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and phosphofructokinase-2 (PFK-2), resulting in the dephosphorylation of PFK-2 and elevated levels of fructose-2,6-bisophosphate (F2,6BP) (Komarova, 2020). However, regarding the Adenylyl Cyclase signaling cascade in liver hepatacytes when glucagon is high, the FALSE statement is that the signaling cascade will lead to the phosphorylation and inactivation of pyruvate kinase. While PKA activation leads to the phosphorylation of enzymes like FBPase and PFK-2, it does not lead to the phosphorylation and inactivation of pyruvate kinase (Jia et al., 2019). Cont…
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