Reflection on the Adenylyl Cyclase Signaling Cascade in Liver Hepatacytes When Glucagon is High,Reflect on the Adenylyl Cyclase signaling cascade. Consider this cascade and the intracellular impacts that it has on a liver hepatacyte when [glucagon] is high. Every statement below accurately describes events that would occur except for one. Please select the FALSE statement. The Gs alpha will activate the adenylyl cyclase effector and the second messenger will be formed. 2. High concentrations of PKA will lead to the dephosphorylation of PFK-2 and resulting elevated levels of fructose-2,6-bisophosphate. 3. The signaling cascade will lead to the phosphorylation and inactivation of pyruvate kinase. 4. Glucagon will serve as a first messenger. It will bind to a receptor on the membrane of the hepatacyte and activate a G protein signal transducer.


Reflection on the Adenylyl Cyclase Signaling Cascade in Liver Hepatacytes When Glucagon is High

Adenylyl cyclase (AC) signaling cascade plays an important role in the intracellular responses of a liver hepatacyte when glucagon is high. The cascade is initiated by glucagon, which serves as a first messenger and binds to a receptor on the membrane of the hepatacyte. This binding activates a G protein signal transducer, which in turn activates the Gs alpha subunit, and then the adenylyl cyclase effector. The effector then produces cAMP, the second messenger, which then activates the protein kinase A (PKA). The PKA activation leads to the phosphorylation and activation of the enzymes fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and phosphofructokinase-2 (PFK-2), resulting in the dephosphorylation of PFK-2 and elevated levels of fructose-2,6-bisophosphate (F2,6BP) (Komarova, 2020). However, regarding the Adenylyl Cyclase signaling cascade in liver hepatacytes when glucagon is high, the FALSE statement is that the signaling cascade will lead to the phosphorylation and inactivation of pyruvate kinase. While PKA activation leads to the phosphorylation of enzymes like FBPase and PFK-2, it does not lead to the phosphorylation and inactivation of pyruvate kinase (Jia et al., 2019). Cont…

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