Metabolic Reactions of Drugs and Endogenous Substances
Metabolic reactions involving drugs and endogenous substances are complex biochemical processes that occur in the body. These reactions are mainly catalyzed by enzymes and involve the transformation of reactants into products. Most importantly, metabolic reactions are responsible for the elimination of drugs and endogenous substances from the body. Here, three common metabolic reaction types found in the body are discussed, including SN1, radical, and E1 reactions. The SN1 reaction involves a carbocation intermediate, which is the result of a proton transfer to the electrophile. As an example, the metabolic reaction of the endogenous substance cortisol occurs via an SN1-type reaction, with cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes as the catalysts (Chan et al., 2019). Here, the electrophile is a hydroxyl group and the nucleophile is a proton. Radical reactions involve the formation of a radical intermediate and are usually initiated by an external source of energy, such as ultraviolet light (Cline et al., 2016). For example, the drug ibuprofen is metabolized by the RXR-CYP enzyme complex via a radical reaction, with the electrophile being the… Cont…
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