Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) had become increasingly popular.

Please respond to 2 classmates posts using current APA citations and references (2009-Present)When responding to classmates, specifically state what you would like to confirm or modify.Comment on how agreeing with what they have discussed would move the discussion forward and would be an excellent aIDition to each post.1.           Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) had become increasingly popular. CAM is frequently being utilized either alone or in aIDition to traditional westernized medicine. In fact 38% of Americans have practiced some deviation of CAM in the past 12 months according to (Lilly & Kundu, 2012). Learning about these different cultural practices is fascinating; especially rituals that cause what one may consider a vulnerability or even taboo.In the Chinese culture it is common to use coining, cupping and moxibustion (Edberg, 2013). Cupping is used to treat symptoms “including chronic lower back pain, headache, indigestion, menstrual irregularity and acne” (Lilly & Kundu, 2012, p.375). This includes placing multiple heated cups on the patients back, stomach, or buttocks and the negative pressure from the cool air is stated to remove the impure toxins in the body (Edberg, 2012). This often results in circular bruising from broken capillaries. The International Journal of Dermatology states that cupping can cause breaches in skin integrity leaving the patient with an infection risk (2012).Ayurveda is popular among the Indian culture, it is defined as “science of life” (Lilly & Kundu, 2012, p.375). This practice involves the use of herbal remedies and natural methods. Arsenic is among these natural ingredients as well as lead, and mercury. These ingredients can have a harmful effect on patients when not prepared properly, as well as a fatal effect on unborn children (Lilly & Kundu, 2012).Interestingly enough I was unaware that I often practice a form of cosmetic cultural practice, eyebrow threading. This ancient Indian method of hair removal is described as becoming globally popular (Lilly & Kundu, 2012). This process seemed harmless to me, a little redness for about an hour post threading, until I came across this research. “Less commonly discussed [complications]…irritant dermatitis, folliculitis, bullous impetigo, mollusum contagiosun, vitiligo, and [plantars warts]” (Lilly & Kundu, 2012. p.378). Though not common symptoms, they in fact exist and are enough of a deterrent for me to search for a different method.
2.         Edberg (2013) describes ethnomedical systems as culturally defined illness whether it is due to the supernatural (personalistic) or imbalances within the body (naturalistic). Many different cultures including western cultures identify a problem, cause and treatment. Cultural beliefs provide for a wide variation of attitudes towards causation of a problem, and therefore the treatment of the problem. Some of these cultural treatment practices, ethnic predispositions or availability to resources can put patients at medical risk.One of the examples in Edberg (2013) that I found interesting was of a Hmong immigrant family living in California. The Lee family had a young daughter with epilepsy that in their culture was looked at as the soul being frightened and leaving the body. The Hmong treatment to this loss of soul is to have a shaman call the soul back to the child (Edberg, 2013). In a situation where medical treatment may be needed to help prevent further epileptic episodes, the disregard for biomedicine as a viable option for treatment can put the patient at high risk.In a study done by Straus, Munguambe, Bassat, Machevo, Pell, Roca and Pool (2011) the recognition and treatment of illness in children under the age of five was done in the town of Manhica, Mozambique. It was found that the vast majority of caretakers were unable to properly identify and thus seek treatment for their children. It was shown that if the illness was thought to be severe enough that caregivers had no problem seeking medical treatment at hospitals. Being able to identify the symptoms of malaria, pneumonia, acute respiratory infections, malnutrition and dehydration, however, proved to be very low and was often attributed to uncurable diseases existing at birth (respiratory symptoms). It was also noted that a nyoka or “snake” in the stomach was thought to be the cause of symptoms such as diarrhea, chills, sunken fontanels and skinny body of child and this snake causes different symptoms according to different phases of the moon (Straus et al., 2011). These symptoms may be clinically recognized as symptoms of malaria or dehydration and malnutrition and need for proper treatment may go unrecognized by caregivers. In this specific part of Mozambique, malaria accounts for 19% of deaths in young children (Straus et al., 2011).Many cultures use herbal remedies and sometimes mix the use of herbal therapy with western medical therapy. In the Chinese culture, an herb called Shu-Jing-Hwo-Shiee-Tang (SJHST) is commonly used in treatment of osteoarthritis, however, can increase the risk for bleeding in those patients also on Warfarin (Yang, Yu, Chen & Lin, 2013). People of Asian descent are also genetically predisposed to be more sensitive to Warfarin (Moyer, O’Kane, Baudhuin, Wiley, Fortini, Fisher, Dupras, Chaudhry, Thapa, Zinsmeister & Heit, 2009) and thus are at great risk for bleeding. It is important to communicate to not only ask about medications your patient is taking but also herbal remedies, vitamins and diet as these can all interact with medication.

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