For this assignment you must create a white paper for a dissertation. Please do not bid unless you know how to write a white paper and dissertation . You must put the information below into a white paper,and format it according to the information . Attached are 2 white papers templates My information is below the white paper guide.
white Paper Guide What is a white paper? Essentially, this is an authoritative report or guide that informs readers about a complex relevant issue. The paper combines expert knowledge and research into a document that argues for a specific solution or recommendation. In the paper, the content and research informs the reader and increases their understanding of the problem or issue. The purpose is to allow the reader to understand an issue, solve a problem, or make a decision.
To be successful as the writer of the white paper, you need to understand and include all key elements related to the topic at hand. The reader will want to be sure that you have something meaningful to say, and that you are you a credible source. Your white paper should, therefore, be well researched and documented, clearly demonstrating your understanding of the topic at hand and also including supporting evidence to substantiate your claims. In order to write a valuable document, all research materials must come from credible, reliable sources.
Readers who are drawn to your message are hopefully willing to explore it. You can engage readers by showing them you understand the problem and by showing mastery of the subject. You achieve this through detailed, clear, and focused writing. As the author, your main goal is to be persuasive and ensure that you directly address the needs of your audience.
For this assignment, your white paper must serve as an educational tool to engage, inform, and convince your readers about the importance of the specific research problem. You will also let your readers know how you propose to address the problem or seek a solution for improvement of the issue at hand.
Please refer to the Spotlight on Skills for preparing to write your white paper. Here are some additional guidelines to help you prepare:
Create an outline before you begin writing to assist you in writing a paper that flows clearly and logically. A useful organizational tool is the mind-map, which allows you to connect the many different pieces into one visual overview.
The title that you choose should clearly indicate what the reader will learn from the white paper. A creative, meaningful, enticing title drives readership.
Make use of appropriate headings and subheadings to structure your argument so that the paper is reader-friendly and easy to follow.
Clarity and conciseness of writing are key! Remember, you want to keep your reader interested and engaged!
As you put pen to paper, remember that your white paper should include all the following components:
An informative title. Revisit the title you provided in Week 1. At that early stage in the course you were asked to provide a suitable working title that captures the essence of the topic. As you have dived deeper into your topic over the past few weeks, reflect on how and in what way(s) your title may have changed or shifted. Thinking about these changes and shifts will provide you with some important insights about the development of your research ideas and goals.
A compelling introduction. This section provides the background contextual information required for the audience to grasp the problem and, ultimately, the solution or resolution to that problem.
The problem or issue. Your problem statement specifies the issue the white paper will address. The problem needs to be clearly defined and placed within a context to ensure that it is clearly understood by the reader. In this section, it is essential that you support your description with research-based evidence. Toward this end please access the library databases to seek all relevant and current sources (published within the last 5 years).
A solution to the problem. This is the study’s essential purpose. In this section, you present your solution to the problem by clearly and persuasively explaining how the problem can be addressed and resolved. Including your research questions will further solidify the study’s purpose.
Conclusion. This section summarizes the white paper’s major ideas and key takeaways. Here, you can also provide recommendations based on the solution. Think of what you want your reader to walk away with? What is your main message?
References. All scholarly sources used to develop the white paper must be cited in this section. These references offer your reader content for further research. Remember, all citations and references must follow APA format and style.
My information Below
Lack of Parental Support in Special Education
Research shows that parental involvement leads to a student’s academic success, improves school programs, and assists teachers with their work (Durišić & Bunijevac, 2017; Epstein, 2009; Zhang & Spencer, 2015). Parental support is reported as a relationship cultivated by parents, teachers, and students. Epstein suggests a framework consisting of parenting, volunteering, communicating, learning at home, decision-making, and collaborating with the community to demonstrate parental involvement in education (Epstein, 2001, 2003, 2009). Using Epstein’s framework, it is easy to characterize parental support within the special education setting as they underline the integral role parents play in a special education setting in regards to motivation, accessibility, learning, balancing responsibility, and bolstering learning outcomes (Garbe et al., 2020).
While approaches such as communication, decision-making, volunteering, collaboration, and learning at home foster the participation of parents in the education of their children in a regular education setting are pronounced and desirable, there seems to be limited understanding of the parental support in special education. For example, researchers found challenges such as difficult home settings for learning and teaching but do not provide specific effects on the lack of parental support in the special education (Garbe et al., 2020; Hill & Taylor, 2004; (Mills et al., 2021)). Within the special education context, parents are integral in reinforcing learning outcomes in students. The lack of parental support for the special needs students means an extra effort is needed in facilitating learning and teaching. Parents and educational administrators should not blame teachers for failing to deliver a curriculum to enable special needs students to improve academic performance. Instead, there is a need to understand that the lack of parental support in special education is detrimental to learning and academic outcomes. In most cases, such an assumption might only focus on the student’s academic milestones; disregarding the lack of a reliable and valid measure of student learning is an important consideration in student’s performance in special education (Kirby, 2017; Rillotta et al., 2020). Therefore, this paper examines the lack of parental support in special needs education and how it influences teaching and learning in similar settings.
The importance of parental support in education settings has long been recognized: it fosters the relationship between parents and teachers, long-term creation of a conducive school environment, positive communication with the educational institution, facilitates learning, and accelerates students’ adaptation to the special education setting (Durišić & Bunijevac, 2017; Zhang & Spencer, 2015). Studies also show the growing importance of parental support to students, especially in improving literacy skills and academic outcomes (Banerjee et al., 2011; Garbe et al., 2020; Henderson et al., 2007; Nillos, 2019; Powell, 2010). At the same time, there are significant studies on the barriers to parental support, family challenges, child factors, parent-teacher factors, and societal factors in special education (Hornby & Blackwell, 2018).
The lack of parental support has also been explored within the context of transition planning in special education, where inadequate time and knowledge about transition, non-involvement of parents by the school, and lack of guidance about the transition services are reported (Almalki et al., 2021; Nillos, 2019). Parental support facilitates learning and teaching by reducing emotional exhaustion and improving personal accomplishments in special education (Langher et al., 2017). For example, parents deliver critical input and insight about the student, shaping the decision-making process during the Individual Education Program team meeting. Despite the positive contribution of parental involvement, the lack of knowledge and awareness of special education provisions affects parent-teacher relationships in special education (Francisco et al., 2020). The mixed-up of parental involvement calls for a better understanding of the lack of parental support in special education to address barriers and promote academic outcomes for special needs students and institutions.
This study will focus on how the lack of parental support affects learning and teaching in special education. Pertinent data will be discussed about the lack of parental support to students in special education from the perspective of special education teachers.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore issues precipitating the lack of parental support in special education, as well as mechanisms for addressing the problem. By definition, parental support constitutes behaviors such as praising, encouraging, and guidance that parents use to motivate and improve the educational outcomes of their children (Banerjee et al., 2011; Powell, 2010). These behaviors will be reviewed within Epstein’s framework of parental involvement, community collaboration, communication, learning at home, decision-making, and volunteering. The lack of parental support in special education is worth attention to due to its impact on student progress. Oranga et al. recommended that there is a need to “attempt to address the apparent low level of parental involvement in education and more importantly in the education of learners with intellectual disabilities” (2022, p. 419). To emphasize parental support in special education, it is desirable to mobilize knowledge on the issue of lack of parental support in similar settings. By exploring impediments associated with the child, parent, and teachers, policymakers will be able to design policies that are responsive in bolstering communication, volunteering, community collaboration, parenting, decision-making, and learning at home. The lack of parental support in special education is important because it impacts the relationship between the parent, teacher, and students. This necessitates the need to understand specific dimensions that limit parental support in special education. Voulgarides suggested that it is “important for educators to think deeply about their assumptions, biases, and beliefs, about what constitutes a ‘good’ parent or ‘good’ parent participation” (2021, p. 16). Imperatively, parental support can only be highlighted within the structure of the existing relationship between the parents and the teacher in a special education setting. In appreciating that parents have significant knowledge and expertise in promoting special education, operating within structural and legal frameworks such as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) can be realized. This means understanding the contexts and contributions of parents in the special education setting should be anticipated and promoted using whatever mechanism in the education setting.
An understanding of how the parent-teacher factors contribute to the lack of parental support in special education “inform the development of a prototype to maximize parental involvement through tailored provision, including for harder to reach parents” (Bones et al., 2021, p. 12). This perspective underscores frameworks used in online learning practices in special education settings and emphasizes the diverse perceptions that parents and teachers might have regarding the practice. Exploring the lack of parental support within this new platform informs special education policies to respond to contexts and excite parents to actively participate in the child’s education (Bones et al., 2021; Roberts & Guerra, 2017). Without sufficient knowledge of limited parental support mechanisms in special education, it is impractical to contextualize solutions that bolster the utilization of these new technologies.
The lack of perceived parental support is a relevant factor in reducing burnout of a special education teacher. Langher et al. suggest the “need for improving supportive environments for burnout prevention, especially in at-risk situations such as for schools from socio-economically disadvantaged areas” (2017, p. 138). The socio-economic context of a special education institution determines the relationship between the teacher and parents. Special education teachers often report demotivation and attrition when the school is not inclusive (Billingsley & Bettini, 2019). Situating the lack of parental support within the environmental settings enables policymakers to develop policies that promote the participation of parents in the student’s learning and the teachers’ emotional wellbeing.
Research questions for this qualitative study will focus on different issues associated with the lack of parental support in the special education system. The inclusion criteria for each question underpins the parental factors, child factors, teacher factors, and school factors, as well as the components of Epstein’s parental involvement framework (Epstein, 2009; Garbe et al., 2020; Hill & Taylor, 2004). Specifically, this qualitative study aims to explore the lack of parental support in special education, so bias and assumptions contributing to the issue are important in framing the questions. The following are the research questions for this qualitative study:
What are parents’ perceptions of parental support to children in special schools?
The question seeks to collate data on parents’ understanding of parental support and involvement in the learning and teaching of special needs students. It will provide the basis for diving deeper into the context of the lack of parental support in special education.
What is the teacher’s perception of parental support to children in special schools?
The question seeks to collect the sentiment of special education teachers regarding parents’ involvement in the learning and teaching of children. It will generate data critical in establishing the credibility of the lack of parental support in special education.
What parental factors contribute to the lack of parental support in special schools?
The question will generate data related to parenting that contribute to the lack of parental involvement in special education settings. It will explore the context of the home environment within the context of learning, where parents are by default expected to support children as students. It will also help situate the lack of parental involvement within teachers’ beliefs.
What are the mechanisms for promoting parental support in special school settings?
The question recognizes that special schools promote specific activities or events to involve parents in the student’s education. The data will help identify the most common mechanisms that have proved ineffective, thus, contributing to the lack of parental involvement in the child’s education.
What are the effects of inadequate parental support on special needs teachers?
The question explores patterns in data relating to the lack of parental support in special schools.
What are the strategies and interventions for fostering parental support for special needs students?
In light of defective mechanisms underscored in the previous question, this research question aims at consolidating suitable strategies to increase parental support. This question underlines the contribution of parental support to students’ academic outcomes to recommend responsive interventions that suit socio-economic differences.
What communication strategies are effective in promoting parental support to special needs students?
The question explores communication practices between parents, teachers, and students and how it influences the active participation of parent’s in a student’s academic success.
What are the assumptions, biases, and beliefs underpinning the lack of parental support in special schools?
Lack of parental participation is influenced by issues determined by the student, parent, and teacher. The question will explore the different antecedents of bias, assumptions, and beliefs that shape parental participation in special schools. How does online learning in a special school influence the parent-teacher-student relationship and direct participation of parents in the child’s learning process?
The question explores the bias associated with online learning systems in special schools. It will generate data that will help contextualize parental support within the communication practices, especially if patterns in participant data reveal such a relationship.
What are the opportunities for parental support to special needs students?
The question will generate information on opportunities that parents can support students with special needs. It recognizes the availability of diverse strategies that parental support, some of which could be attributed to the lack of parental support due to bias and attitude.
Although parental support is associated with several barriers, it plays an integral role in students’ academic outcomes in a special education setting. Policymakers should pay attention to the challenges and advantages of promoting parental support in special education due to the underlying bias, assumptions, and beliefs of parents and teachers. This diversity necessitates scrutiny into antecedents of the lack of parental support in special education within a framework with six components, community collaboration, parenting, communication, volunteering, decision-making, and learning at home.
The purpose of this qualitative study will be to explore issues associated with the lack of parental support in special education. Specifically, it underscores issues emerging from decisions made by parents and teachers, where the latter provides critical information to reinforce a supportive relationship that benefits the student. At the same time, the lack of parental support is situated with prevailing environmental circumstances, where a parent’s attitudes, biases, and assumptions may influence the relationship with the student. Similarly, the special education teacher may be struggling with an unfavorable environment.
The mixed-up of parental involvement calls for a better understanding of the lack of parental support in special education to address barriers and promote academic outcomes for special needs students and institutions. A sufficient understanding of the issues associated with the lack of parental support in special education will help policymakers analyze existing frameworks and develop more responsive solutions to bolster parental participation in special education to improve academic outcomes. The success of such approaches entirely depends on evaluating the perspectives of parents and teachers.
Almalki, S., Alqabbani, A., & Alnahdi, G. (2021). Challenges to parental involvement in transition planning for children with intellectual disabilities: The perspective of special education teachers in Saudi Arabia. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 111, 103872. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2021.103872
Banerjee, M., Harrell, Z. A., & Johnson, D. J. (2011). Racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education predictors of cognitive ability and achievement in African American children. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 595-605.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-010-9559-9
Billingsley, B., & Bettini, E. (2019). Special education teacher attrition and retention: A review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 89(5), 697-744. https://doi.org/10.3102%2F0034654319862495
Bones, U., Bates, J., Finlay, J., & Campbell, A. (2022). Parental involvement during COVID-19: Experiences from the special school. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/08856257.2021.1967297
Boonk, L., Gijselaers, H.J.M., Ritzen, H., Brand-Gruwel, S. (2018). A review of the relationship between parental involvement indicators and academic achievement, Educational Research Review. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2018.02.001
Durišić, M., & Bunijevac, M. (2017). Parental involvement as an important factor for successful education. Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal, 7(3), 137-153. https://doi.org/10.26529/cepsj.291
Francisco, Marian P.B., Maria Hartman, and Ye Wang. 2020. “Inclusion and Special Education” Education Sciences 10, no. 9: 238. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10090238
Hill, N. E., & Taylor, L. C. (2004). Parental school involvement and children’s academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(4), 161–164. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0963-7214.2004.00298.x
Hornby, G., & Blackwell, I. (2018). Barriers to parental involvement in education: An update. Educational Review, 70(1), 109-119. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131911.2018.1388612
Kirby, M. (2017). Implicit assumptions in special education policy: Promoting full inclusion for students with learning disabilities. Child & Youth Care Forum (Vol. 46, No. 2, pp. 175-191). Springer US. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-016-9382-x
Langher, V., Caputo, A., & Ricci, M. E. (2017). The potential role of perceived support for reduction of special education teachers’ burnout. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 6(2), 120-147. https://doi.org/10.17583/ijep.2017.2126
Nillos, I. C. O. (2019). Parental involvement and academic performance of children with special education needs. Philippine Social Science Journal, 2(2), 183-183.
Oranga, J., Obuba, E., Sore, I., & Boinett, F. (2022). Parental Involvement in the Education of Learners with Intellectual Disabilities in Kenya. Open Access Library Journal, 9(4), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1108542
Powell, S. M. D. (2010). The effect of parental involvement on mathematics achievement of African American middle school students. Doctoral Dissertation, Walden University.
Rillotta, F., Arthur, J., Hutchinson, C., & Raghavendra, P. (2020). Inclusive university experience in Australia: Perspectives of students with intellectual disability and their mentors. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 24, 102-117. https://doi.org/10.1177/1744629518769421
Roberts, M. B., & Guerra, F. (2017). Principals’ perceptions of their knowledge in special education. Current Issues in Education. http://cie.asu.edu/ojs/index.php/cieatasu/article/view/1567
Mills, R., Mann, M. J., Smith, M. L., & Kristjansson, A. L. (2021). Parental support and monitoring as associated with adolescent alcohol and tobacco use by gender and age. BMC Public Health, 21(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-12119-3
Voulgarides, C. (2021): Equity, parental/caregiver’ power,’ and disability policy in the U.S. context. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1-19. https://doi.org/1080/13603116.2021.1937345
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