The agonist-antagonist spectrum of action found in psychopharmacologic agents refers to the drugs’ ability to bind with receptors and elicit a response, either by activating them (agonists) or inhibiting them (antagonists). Agonists are used to treat conditions such as depression, anxiety and insomnia through increasing the action of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and norepinephrine. Antagonists on the other hand, can be used for conditions like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder by blocking receptor sites from being activated by agonists.
Partial agonists are similar to traditional agonists in that they activate select receptor sites but do so at lower levels than full agonists. This is beneficial because it limits over stimulation of certain pathways without sacrificing efficacy. Inverse agonists work in a similar manner but act as inhibitors rather than activators; they reduce levels of certain neurotransmitters while still having therapeutic effects. In this way inverse agonists have a greater range of application than traditional antagonists.
Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents, including how partial and inverse agonist functionality may impact the efficacy of psychopharmacologic treatments. Compare and contrast the actions of g couple proteins and ion gated channels. Explain how the role of epigenetics may contribute to pharmacologic action.
G protein coupled proteins (GPCRs) are cell surface proteins that respond to external stimuli such as hormones or neurochemicals which then triggers an internal signal cascade within the cell itself. This type of signaling occurs when an extracellular ligand binds to the GPCR which then activates its associated G protein molecule leading to increased production cyclic AMP (cAMP) molecules inside cell membrane thus furthering signaling process across various pathways depending particular situation concerned.
Ion gated channels on other hand allow passage ions through its pore structure based upon electrical charge each ion carries i.e positively charged ones cannot pass negatively charged ones vice versa when certain stimulus arrives nearby these channels open close accordingly allowing fluid flow back forth between cells thus enabling transmission signals both directions!
Epigenetics plays role pharmacological action through modifications genes responsible producing specific enzymes drug targets involved some cases methylation acetylation histone proteins associated gene promoter regions can increase decrease expression said genes thereby altering activity underlying pathway turn impacting effectiveness treatment itself ! Examples includes changing activity beta-blockers monoamine oxidase inhibitors two commonly used medications treating hypertension depression respectively therefore making important factor consider selection prescribing doctor looking best possible outcome patient.