Present both psychological and biological theories that have been proposed to account for the development of sexual orientation.
Psychological theories suggest that sexual orientation is a result of early childhood experiences or environmental influences. One such theory is psychodynamic theory, which posits that an individual’s sexuality is shaped by unconscious desires, conflicts and repressed memories (Freud 1921). According to this perspective, individuals’ feelings towards people of the same gender are seen as driven by unresolved issues from their past. A second psychological theory that has been proposed suggests that homosexuality may be an adaptation to lack of parental attachment or unconditional acceptance during childhood (Bieber et al., 1962). This idea holds that children who experience rejection or exclusion from their parents may develop same-sex attractions as an attempt to fill the void left by unfulfilled emotional needs.
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