A genetic mutation is a permanent alteration in the DNA sequence of an organism that can be passed on to its offspring. It is the result of a change in the structure of the gene or chromosome, which can affect the physical or chemical properties of the gene and its product. Mutations can occur spontaneously or can be induced by exposure to certain environmental agents such as radiation or chemicals (Kumar & Chatterjee, 2019). There are various types of genetic mutations. Point mutations are single-base changes in the DNA sequence, which may result in the substitution of one amino acid for another in the protein product. Frameshift mutations involve the insertion or deletion of a base pair, resulting in the misalignment of the reading frame of the gene, and may lead to a premature stop codon and truncated protein product. Chromosomal mutations are changes in the structure and number of chromosomes, which can lead to a variety of genetic disorders (O’Shea, 2019). The role of DNA and RNA in genetic diseases is essential. DNA and RNA are responsible for the production of proteins, which are the building blocks of the body. Mutations in the DNA or RNA can alter the structure of the protein and… Cont…
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