Descriptive vs Normative Reasoning
Normative accounts of human efficiency in pondering, reasoning, and downside fixing describe how folks must carry out on a specific activity, primarily based on logical rules or different theoretical requirements (Kahneman & Tversky, 2019). In distinction, descriptive accounts describe how folks really carry out on the duty, primarily based on empirical observations. One instance of a reasoning activity is syllogistic reasoning, which includes drawing conclusions primarily based on two given premises. Normative accounts would describe the best efficiency on this activity, primarily based on rules of logical deduction, whereas descriptive accounts would describe how folks really carry out on the duty, primarily based on information from empirical research. For instance, a normative account would possibly state that individuals ought to have the ability to appropriately clear up syllogisms that comply with sure logical rules, whereas a descriptive account would possibly report that individuals usually make errors on syllogisms, even when the conclusions are logically legitimate (Evans, 2021). One other instance of a decision-making activity is danger evaluation, which includes evaluating the likelihood and potential penalties of various programs of motion. Normative accounts would possibly describe the best efficiency on this activity, primarily based on rules of likelihood concept and utility maximization, whereas descriptive accounts would describe how folks really carry out on the duty, primarily based on information from empirical research. For instance, a normative account would possibly state that individuals must make choices that maximize anticipated utility, whereas a descriptive account would possibly report that individuals usually exhibit biases and heuristics that deviate from this customary (Kahneman & Tversky, 2019). Cont…
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