Intelligence tests are quite widely used and are applied in various settings. Distinguish between the models of intelligence proposed by Spearman (1927) and Cattell (1971). Intelligence Test Models

Intelligence Test Models

These tests measure an individual’s ability to think, learn and solve problems. They are used to evaluate cognitive ability and forecast future job and academic performance in clinical and educational settings. Over the years there have been many models of intelligence. Two of the most popular models were those of Spearman (2018), Cattell (2019). Spearman’s theory, commonly known as “two-factor theory”, proposes intelligence is made up of two factors. One is the general factor (g), and one are specific factors (s). While the general factor is a person’s cognitive abilities, specific factors are their ability in certain areas such as math or verbal ability. Although specific capabilities may vary between people, the general factor of intelligence influences them all (Spearman 2018). Cattell’s theory is also called the “fluid- crystallized Intelligence” theory. It proposes that intelligence can be divided into two kinds of cognitive abilities, fluid intelligence, and crystallized. Crystallized intelligence can be defined as the ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to solve problems. Fluid intelligence refers to the ability solve new problems and reason abstractly. According to this model, fluid intelligence declines as we age. Crystallized intelligence, however, tends increase in age and with more experience. (Cartell, 2019,). Cont…

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