If you were going to write a study-guide for students on how to learn material in their courses what would you include and why? More specifically, pick 4 cognitive strategies or general principles of learning and memory for each, and explain what the principle means, summarize the evidence that it improves long-term retention, and explain how a student might implement it in a real-life college course situation. Cognitive Strategies for Learning

Cognitive Strategies to Learn

A study guide can help you prepare for exams and increase your chances of passing. A Stanford study found that college students could improve their scores on exams by taking a more strategic approach. This was based on a one-third average increase in letter grades. These cognitive strategies are possible to use: Spacing effect. This principle suggests that students who study over longer periods of time retain more information than those who study in massed groups. Numerous studies, including Cepeda et al. have supported this idea. (2019). This strategy is implemented by students who might be able to review less of the course material each day, rather than trying to fit everything into one long session. Interleaving refers to interleaving different topics or concepts in one study session. Research has shown that this can be more effective for learning compared to studying similar material in blocks (Kornell & Bjork, 2020). This strategy could be used by students to review a range of concepts in a single session, rather than focusing on one subject at a given time. Explanation: It involves making connections between the new information and your existing knowledge. This can help to better encode the new information in memory and improve retention (Karpicke & Blunt, 2022). Students might create mind maps or examples to explain the information they’re studying. The practice of retrieval is the active recalling of information from memory. This goes beyond just reviewing and rereading. This has been shown to be an effective way to strengthen memory and improve retention (Karpicke & Roediger, 2022). Cont…

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